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2-The Kunaka Sentence Construction

       The Kunaka sentence construction is more complex than the one shown below. The structure can take some additional prefixes, infixes and suffixes according to the situation. Below is a very simple sentence construction and this construction is intentionally selected as an example in order to give the readers the basic understanding of the grammatical elements of a Kunaka sentence. More complex ones will be given in later chapters as the role of the sentence elements are introduced to the readers one by one.


A typical Kunaka sentence construction formula is as follows;


(SUBJECT)                POSITIVE / NEGATIVE          ACTIVE / PASSIVE       


( SUBJ.PRO)        (placed or not, depending on the status of the sentence)

* Both Optional


Sentence Elements


A-Subject Pronouns and Subject Pronoun Indicator Prefixes (Subj.Prefixes)


     The role of the subjects is that they are responsible for the action in a sentence. They can be pronoun, word, word groups etc.


Personal Subject Pronouns                            Subject Pronoun Indicator Prefixes               

Awa (1.Sg) = I                                                               a-                                                        

Naaya (2.Sg) = You                                                    naa-                                                       

Wama (3.Sg) = He, She, It                                            wa-                                                        

Awate (1.Pl) = We                                                         te-                                                      

Kusaa (2.Pl) = You(Pl)                                                    saa-                                                      

Maanu (3.Pl) = They                                                       nu-         


Ex: (Kusaa)  in saa-mu-ta qua.  ( You (Pl) will not need that. )                                              

Analysing the structure:

(Kusaa)  in saa-mu-ta qua.              Kusaa : you (2.person pl) subj. (it is optional to place Subject

                                                              Pronoun since subj.pronoun ind.prefix is alone enough)

                                                       in : negative status indicator

                                                    saa- : subject pre. for 2.person pl.

                                                    -mu- : verb root for the verb ‘to need’

                                                     -ta : tense indicator for future tens.

                                                    qua : that (object)


Ex: (Maanu)  nu-ju-lea jutna samoje.  ( They were watching the movie togather. )                                             

Analysing the structure:

(Maanu)  nu-ju-lea jutna samoje.           Maanu : they (3.person pl) subj.

                                                            nu- :  subject pre. for 3.person pl.

                                                            -ju- : verb root for the verb ‘to watch’

                                                           -lea : tense indicator for simp. past. cont. tense

                                                         jutna : movie

                                                      samoje : togather


B- Positive / Negative Status Indicator


     The Positive / Negative Status indicator is important because it shows if the constructed Kunaka sentence is positive or negative and a prefix is inserted or not according to status of the sentence. If a Kunaka sentence is positive then no prefix is needed, but if the sentence is negative then the negative indicator prefix “in-“ should be inserted.


Positive :       - (no prefix)

Negative:   in-


C- Active / Passive Status Indicator


     The Active / Passive Status indicator is important because it shows if the constructed Kunaka sentence is active or passive and a suffix is inserted or not according to status of the sentence. If a Kunaka sentence is active then no suffix is needed, but if the sentence is passive then the passive indicator suffix “-ka“ should be inserted.


Active :  - (no suffix)

Passive:  -ka 


!  In a Kunaka sentence, Positive / Negative Status Indicator is always followed by Active / Passive Status Indicator and please keep in mind that this order NEVER changes.


     Now we will see how Positive / Negative and Active / Passive Status Indicators function in a Kunaka sentence.


Ex: Positive and Active Sentence


3.Sg.Pronoun     Pos.ind.      Active ind.     Subj.prefix       Verb     Tense ind.

  (Wama)               -                 -                 wa-            -sha-          -le.

(He/she/it)             -                -             he/she/it      to sleep  simp.past.tense

Translation: He/she/it slept.


Washale. = He slept.


Ex: Negative and Active Sentence


2.Sg.Pronoun    Neg.ind.    Active ind.      Subj.prefix      Verb         Tense ind.           Adverb

   (Naaya)             in-             -                   naa-           -pa-              -ta                  meon.     

   (You (sg.))           not            -                   you           to swim         will               tomorrow

Translation : You will not swim tomorrow.


In naapata meon.  = You will not swim tomorrow.


Ex: Positive and Passive Sentence


1.Sg.Pronoun     Pos.ind.     Pass. ind.            Subj.prefix       Verb           Tense ind.           Conj.

       (Awa )            -               -ka                      a-              -mo-               -le                 qua ...

      (    I    )            -       passive form ind.           I               to tell        simp.past.ten.        that

Translation : I was told that .....


Ka amole qua ... = I was told that ...


Ex: Negative and Passive Sentence


1.Pl.Pronoun      Neg.ind.     Pass. ind.      Subj.prefix          Verb       Tense ind.          Object

  (Awate)                in-             -ka                te-                 -fua-            -de             di     owa.

    (We)                 not      passive form        We                to hit      pres. perf.         by     him

Translation : We have not been hit by him.


Inka tefuade di owa. = We have not been hit by him.


D- Subject Prefixes (Subject Pronoun Indicator Prefixes)


     In Kunaka, subjects take prefixes and these prefixes are attached in front of the verb root as shown in the formula. Moreover it is optional in most cases to put subject pronoun in a sentence, because subject prefix is alone sufficient to indicate what the subject is.

Ex: Awa  acheta katela meon.  =  A-cheta katela meon. (I will play football tomorrow) 

Here the subject prefix of 1. person singular (a-) already indicates that the subject is I (Awa), hence it is not necessary to put the subject pronoun (Awa) in the sentence.


! Please pay attention to the fact that the sentence in the above example is positive and active so there is no positive indicator prefix and no active indicator suffix placed in the sentence.


Personal Subjects Pronouns                      Personal Subject Pronoun Indicator Prefixes               

Awa (1.Sg) = I                                                             a-                                                       

Naaya (2.Sg) = You                                                  naa-                                                       

Wama (3.Sg) = He, She, It                                          wa-                                                        

Awate (1.Pl) = We                                                       te-                                                      

Kusaa (2.Pl) = You(pl)                                                  saa-                                                      

Maanu (3.Pl) = They                                                     nu-         


! As seen above, Personal Subject Pronoun Indicator Prefixes are derived from The Personal Subject Pronouns in such a way that for singular personal subject pronouns, the first syllables become The Personal Subject Prefixes.

For plural personal subject pronouns, the last syllables become The Personal Subject Prefixes.


Personal Pronouns


Awa                    a- verb root - tense ind.

NAAya             naa- verb root - tense ind.

WAma               wa- verb root - tense ind.

awaTE                 te- verb root - tense ind.

kuSAA                saa- verb root - tense ind.

maaNU                nu- verb root - tense ind.


Ex: Awate  tevuga leetnan. (We are selling books)

Analysing the structure:

Awate te-vu-ga leetnan.             awate : we (1.person pl) subj.

                                                  te- :  subject pre. for 1.person pl.

                                                -vu- : verb root for the verb ‘to sell’

                                                 -ga : tense indicator for simp. Pr. Cont. tens.

                                           leetnan : books (object)


Ex: Maanu nusale shelu wekele. (They came from the village)

Analysing the structure:

Maanu nu-sa-le shelu wekele.               maanu : they (3.person pl) subj.

                                                            nu- :  subject Prefix for 3.Person Plural

                                                           -sa- : verb root for the verb ‘to come’

                                                             -le : tense Indicator for Simple Past Tense

                                                         shelu : from (conjunction)

                                                      wekele : village (object)


E-The Verb “To be” in Kunaka; “-kka-”


     The verb “to be” which is the infix “-kka-”  is used to describe a situation or to qualify something or somebody. The infix “-kka-“ is placed between subject prefix and the tense indicator suffix.

     The conjugated forms of the descriptive verb ‘to be’ for the personal pronouns and the basic tenses are given in the following tab


Positive (+)

Subj.      Sub.Pref.     Simp.Present.Tens                          Simp.Past Tense                                  Future

                          infix -kka- + tens.ind.suffix (-)     infix -kka- + tens.ind.suffix (-le)           infix -kka- + tens.ind.suffix (-ta)

Awa           a-             A-kka (I am)                               A-kka-le (I was)                           A-kka-ta (I’ll be)

Naaya     naa-        Naa-kka (You are)                       Naa-kka-le (You were)                     Naa-kka-ta (You’ll be)

Wama      wa-         Wa-kka (He/she/It is)                  Wa-kka-le (He/she/it was)            Wa-kka-ta (He/she/it will be)

Awate         te-           Te-kka (We are)                         Te-kka-le (We were)                      Te-kka-ta (We’ll be)

Kusaa       saa-          Saa-kka (You(pl ) are)                  Saa-kka-le (You(pl) were)               Saa-kka-ta (You(pl)’ll be)

Maanu       nu-          Nu-kka (They are)                        Nu-kka-le (They were)                  Nu-kka-ta (They’ll be)


Negative (-)

Subj.      Subj.Pr. Neg.Stat. ind.  Subj.Pref.     Simp.Present tense                           Simple Past tense                            Future Tense

                                                          infix -kka- + tens.ind.suffix (-)         infix -kka- + tens.ind.suffix (-le)         infix -kka- +tens.ind.suffix (-ta)

Awa                    in                    a         In a-kka (I am not)                      In a-kka-le (I was not)                   In a-kka-ta (I’ll not be)

Naaya                 in                 naa        In naa-kka (You are not)               In naa-kka-le (You were not)          In naa-kka-ta (You’ll not be)

Wama                 in                  wa        In wa-kka (He/she/it is not)         In wa-kka-le (He/she/it was not)   In wa-kka-ta (He/she/it’ll not be)

Awate                 in                    te         In te-kka (We are not)                 In te-kka-le (We were not)              In te-kka-ta(We’ll not be)

Kusaa                  in                 saa         In saa-kka (You(pl) are not)           In saa-kka-le (You(pl) were not)        In saa-kka-ta (You(pl)’ll not be)

Maanu                in                   nu         In nu-kka (They are not)                In nu-kka-le(They were not)             In nu-kka-ta (They’ll not be)


More Examples:


(Wama) in wa-kka-ta ran.       (He won’t be sick)

(Awa) a-kka-de ugale.            (I have been happy)

(Awate) in te-kka-le enua leujan.   (We were not good students)

(Maanu) in nu-kka-le un leutna jule.  (They were not in the school yesterday)

(Kusaa) saa-kka un tespua arra.    (You(Pl) are in shop now.)


F- “ There is / There are “ Constructions


       The use of “there is” for singular and “there are “ for plural constructions are quite simple, we simply use the following formula;


There is   ;    Se wa-kka    (singular)           There was  ;    Se wa-kka-le    (singular past)          

There are  ;   Se nu-kka     (plural)              There were   ;  Se nu-kka-le     (plural past)  

There will be; Se wa-kka-ta  (singular future)        

                   Se nu-kka-ta   (plural future)



Se wakka chae asha kotta furra i tarta.           ( There is a nice car in front of the hospital )

Se nukka ussa enua leetnan ontu kakke.          ( There are some good books on the table )

Cae se wakka chae leutna mupe chu?           ( Is there a school near here? )

Cae se nukka ussa raatun un na roatna?         ( Are there some people in this building? )


! “Cae” is the “question sentence indicator”

! Please pay attention to the pronunciation of the question sentence indicator “Cae” in the above sentence, the emphasis is given to the second syllable “e”.




   Most of the verbs in Kunaka ends with a vowel. The suffix "-ke" at the end of the verb root indicates the infinitive form of the verb. For example the infinitive form “pa-ke” means “to swim”.  ( the infinitive form : “pa-ke” and the verb root : “-pa-“ )

   Moreover the negative form of infinitive verbs are constructed by adding negative status indicator  “in-“ before the verb root.


   Ex: Zau-ke (v) : to become (infinitive verb)

Analysing the structure

Zau-ke :        zau : the verb root for the verb ‘to become’

                    -ke : infinitive suffix


    Ex: in zauke (v) : not to read (negative infinitive verb)

 Analysing the structure

in zau-ke :              in : negative status indicator

                          zau : the verb root for the verb ‘to become’


     Another function of the suffix “-ke” is that the verb root for example in the previous case     “zau“ (become), when combined with the suffix “-ke” also means ‘the becoming’ which is the noun form of the verb and “in zauke” means ‘no becoming’ or ‘not becoming’.

    Ex:     mu-ke : to need or the needing

          in muke : not to need or no needing or not needing


The complete verbs list is given in the Appendix-3. Please check and try to memorise the complete list.


Some randomly chosen verbs are given below to give a general idea of verbs.


Che-ke     : to play

Fua-ke     :  to hit

Ju-ke       : to watch

Koa-ke    : to learn

Lo-ke      : to fly

Mo-ke    : to tell

Mu-ke    : to need

Nue-ke   : to want

Pa-ke      : to swim

Po-ke      : to speak

Rua-ke   : to find

Ru-ke     : to get   

Sa-ke      : to come

Sha-ke    : to sleep

Shau-ke  : to do

Sho-ke    : to feel

So-ke      : to see

Tu-ke      : to enter 

Zau-ke    : to become



H-Basic Tenses and Tense Indicators


Tense                                                   Tense Indicator Suffix

Simple Present Tense                                     - (No Suffix)                                  

Simple Present Continuous Tense                     - ga                                       

Simple Past Tense                                         - le      

Simple Past Continous Tense                           - lea                              

Present Perfect Tense                                      - de   

Present Perfect Continuous Tense                      - dea                                   

Future Tense                                                 - ta                

Future Continuous Tense                                 - taa                    



The Use of Tense Indicators   


Positive / Active Sentence Structure

Subject prefix + verb root + tense indicator


    To make it clear, a table is given below where the verb “-che” : to play, is used for the illustration:


Subject        Simp.Past.Tense            Pr.Perf.Tense       Simp.Pr.Con.Tense          Future.Tense

Awa                a-che-le                   a-che-de                 a-che-ga                    a-che-ta

Naaya         naa-che-le                naa-che-de              naa-che-ga                naa-che-ta

Wama           wa-che-le                 wa-che-de              wa-che-ga                 wa-che-ta 

 Awate             te-che-le                  te-che-de                 te-che-ga                  te-che-ta

 Kusaa           saa-che-le                saa-che-de              saa-che-ga               saa-che-ta

 Maanu           nu-che-le                  nu-che-de                nu-che-ga                nu-che-ta


Ex: (Wama) wachele.  (He played)

Analysing the structure:

Wa-che-le  ;         wa- :   subject prefix for 3. Person Sg

                        -che- :  verb root for the verb ‘to play’

                           -le :  tense indicator for simple past tense


Ex: (Kusaa) saasode puoba. (You(Pl) have seen the lion)

Analysing the structure:

Saa-so-de puoba.   ;     saa- : subject prefix for 2. Person Pl

                                  -so- :  verb root for the verb ‘to see’

                                  -de- :  tense indicator for present perfect tense

                              puoba :  the lion (object)


Ex: (Maanu) nuyota quan leetnan. (They will understand those books)

Analysing the structure:

Maanu nuyota quan leetnan   ;            Maanu : 3.Person Pl pronoun

                                                            nu- : subject prefix for 3. Person Pl

                                                           -yo- :  verb root for the verb ‘to understand’

                                                             -ta :  tense indicator for future tense

                                                         quan : those (demonstrative)

                                                       leetnan :  books (object)



      Object in a sentence is defined as the entity that is acted upon by the subject. There is thus a primary distinction between subjects and objects that is understood in terms of the action expressed by the verb.

 i.e. I read books – ( Awa  alee leetnan )

“I” is the subject and “books” is the object.


       In Kunaka sentence construction, objects are placed after the word group which is simply ( Subject Prefix + Verb Root + Tense Indicator )


Let’s take a closer look;


Personal Object Pronouns


Personal Subject Pronouns                                     Personal Object Pronouns                

Awa (1.Sg) = I                                                               oa   : me                                                                                         

Naaya (2.Sg) = You                                                      onaa : you                                                                

Wama (3.Sg) = He, She, It                                              owa : him, her, it                                                                                     

Awate (1.Pl) = We                                                           ote : us                                         

Kusaa (2.Pl) = You                                                         osaa : you                              

Maanu (3.Pl) = They                                                      onua : them


! As seen above, Personal Object Pronouns are derived from The Personal Subject Pronouns in such a way that for singular personal subject pronouns, the first syllables after taking the prefix “o-“ become The Singular Personal Object Pronouns. (oa, onaa, owa) : (me, you(sg), him/her/it)

For plural personal subject pronouns, the last syllables after taking the prefix “o-“  become The Plural Personal Object Pronouns. (ote, osaa, onua) : (us, you(pl), them)


! Exceptional case is the personal object pronoun for 3.person plural;

“ them = onua ”


Ex: (Awa)  aguede onua. ( I have invited them )

Analysing the structure

(Awa)  a-gue-de onua. ;    Awa : I (subject 1.Person Sg)

                                        a- : subject prefix for 1.Person Sg

                                    -gue- : the verb root for the verb ‘to invite’

                                      -de : tense indicator for present perfect tense

                                   onua : “them” 3.Person Pl Object Pronoun


Ex: (Awate) tekiata owa. ( We will ask him/her )

Analysing the structure

(Awate) te-kia-ta owa. ;    Awate : We (subject 1.Person Pl)

                                        te- : subject prefix for 1.Person Pl

                                      -kia- : the verb root for the verb ‘to ask’

                                        -ta : tense indicator for future tense

                                     owa : “him/her/it” 3.Person Sg Object Pronoun


More examples :


Niaja  wa-seu  oa qua ...     (The teacher teaches me that ...)

Niaja  wa-seu  onaa qua ...  (The teacher teaches you that ...)

Niaja  wa-seu  owa qua ...  (The teacher teaches him that ...)

Niaja  wa-seu  ote qua ...    (The teacher teaches us that ...)

Niaja  wa-seu  osaa qua ...  (The teacher teaches you(pl) that ...)

Niaja  wa-seu  onua qua ...  (The teacher teaches them that ...)

How to use the reflexive suffix -ji- :


Niaja  wa-seu  owa-ji qua ...  (The teacher teaches himself that ...)

 ! The reflexive suffix “-ji” indicates that subject and object are identical.


Awa  ayue  oaji  ;           (Awa)   a-yue  oa-ji  (I cut myself)

Awate  tesode oteji un mikele. ;    (Awate)  te-so-de  oteji  un mikele.  (We have seen ourselves in the mirror)


Reflexive or Intensive Pronoun


Myself                            :     Oa-ji

Yourself                           :     Onaa-ji

Himself/herself/itself         :     Owa-ji

Ourselves                        :     Ote-ji

Yourselves                        :     Osaa-ji

Themselves                       :     Onua-ji


Some More Examples;


Ex : (Wama) wanaule chae kombe jule. (He bought a cup yesterday)

Analysing the structure

(Wama) wa-nau-le chae kombe jule. ;               Wama : subject pronoun 3.Person Sg

                                                                      wa- : subject pronoun prefix for 3.Person Sg

                                                                     -nau- : the verb root for the verb ‘to buy’

                                                                        -le : tense indicator for simple past tense

                                                                     chae : a, one

                                                                   kombe : cup (object)

                                                                       jule : yesterday


Ex : Orkun anda Ozlem nuvuta ujeten un tuatku. (Orkun and Ozlem will sell the fruits in the market)

Analysing the structure

Orkun anda Ozlem nu-vu-ta ujeten un tuatku. ;     Orkun, Ozlem : names of the two persons

                                                                              anda : and (conjunction)

                                                                                 nu- : subject prefix for 3.Person Pl

                                                                                 -vu- : the verb root for the verb ‘to sell’

                                                                                  -ta : tense indicator for future tense                    

                                                                             ujeten : fruits (object)

                                                                                  un : conjunction “in”

                                                                              tuatku : market


Ex : Bei raatan nuyuega koko tura. (Three people are cutting the coconut tree)

Analysing the structure

Bei raatan nu-yue-ga koko tura. ;            bei : three

                                                   raatan : people

                                                        nu- : subject prefix for 3.Person Pl

                                                      -yue- : the verb root for the verb ‘to cut’

                                                        -ga : tense indicator for tense

                                                      koko : coconut

                                                       tura : tree



J- Question Words (Interrogative Words)


     In Kunaka, it is the intonation and sometimes a question word in the sentence which indicates whether it is a question sentence or not.


Question word              Translation                           Example                                         Translation

Choi?                            What?                     Choi numole onaa?                         What did they tell you?

Choga?                          Who?                    Choga wagueta ote?                        Who will invite us?

Chonar?                        Where?                   Chonar naahode?                            Where have you gone?

Chola?                          When?                    Chola naanita woa leetna?                When will you bring my book?

Choke?                          Why?                     Choke in naabaele un dar?                Why didn’t you stay at home?

Cae?          Question ind.(Yes/No questions)    Cae wakunaode?                              Has she returned?

Cho?                             How?                     Cho naakka?                                    How are you?

Cholei?              What sort? / What kind?       Cholei kuatna naanue?                      What kind of job do you want?

Chopai?                        Which?                    Chopai raat wakka wonaa niaja?       Which person is your teacher?

Chotae?            How much? / How many?      Chotae leetnan nukka ontu kakke?        How many books are there on the table?


! This table is available in The Appendix-6 as well.


Some Examples to Interrogative Words


Chotae leujan se nukka un leutna?                       (How many students are there in the school?)

Chola nusale shelu Utraki?                                  (When did they come from Turkey?)

Choke naamuele kutta luve?                                (Why did you wake up early today?)

Chopai dar naanue nauke?                                 (Which house do you want to buy?)

Chonar wakka wonaa niaja?, in wakka un leutna.   (Where is your teacher?, he is not at the school)                                                              



K-Other Elements of The Kunaka Sentence


    In addition to the basic parts of a Kunaka sentence, there are also other elements which can be inserted into the sentence in order to enrich the meaning and the grammatical structure. The functions of these elements are various and they serve as an information source of the sentence, because they extend the concept of the sentence by giving information about the time, place, action, quantity, quality etc.




Adjectives describe the aspects of nouns. The adjectives come before the noun they qualify in a Kunaka sentence.

! The adjectives in Kunaka starts and ends with a vowel.


  Below are some examples to adjectives ;


enua       :  good                                      essua           :  red

isoe        :  bad                                        aunze          :   new

onae       :  white                                     achache       :  few, little

untu        :  black                                     ukoa            :   hot

appa       :  long                                      axta             :   tasteful

orro        :  short                                     asha             :  nice                                  

essa        :  big                                        echafu         :  dirty

oddo       :  small                                      ottua           :   many

efua        :  raw                                        ukkae         :   another

itto          : hard                                        alua           :    strong

ujoe        :  difficult                                    issi             :   lazy             

ippo        :  important                                uqete          :   expensive

ojae        :  rich                                        uju             :   yellow

enne        :  poor                                      assu           :   clean 

ugete       :  weak                                     ubbe          :   correct

uyte         : excellent                                  ehutu         :   soft 

ugale       :  happy                                   uxse          :   old

utta         :  sharp                                     jutte          :   thin

iette        :  light                                      appe          :   high

ialara      :  low                                       ussa           :   some 

kafea      :  broken                                   kali            :   drunk

kapo       :  spoken                                   kasauma    :   preferred


As seen above the last examples are the adjective types which are constructed from passive verbs.

Ex:   Ka po Malt : Spoken Word

Analysis:     Ka : passive status indicator

                 Po : the verb root “po” (to speak)

              Malt : word


! As a rule, no space is left between passive status indicator “ka” and the verb root “po” when constructed adjectives from passive verbs.  Hence the final form is :  

Kapo Malt = Spoken Word

Kapo : spoken (adjective)

Malt : word (noun)


Please check The adjectives List in The Appendix-4.


See the following examples ;


isoe raat  (a/the bad person) ;             isoe raatan  (the bad people)

oddo artu (a/the small child) ;            oddo artun (the small children)

utta talda (a/the sharp knife) ;            utta taldan (the sharp knives)

appa tura (a/the long tree) ;                appa turan (the long trees)                                                      

isoe malt (a/the bad word) ;               isoe maltan (the bad words)

echafu watna (a/the dirty cloth) ;       echafu watnan (the dirty clothes)

appe nuut (a/the high wall) ;              appe nuutan (the high walls)

essa sad (a/the big place) ;                 essa sadan (the big places)

enua luke (a/the good singing)

asha yen (a/the nice girl) ;                 asha yenan (the nice girls)

ukkae cheja (another player)

jutte leetna (a/the thin book) ;           jutte leetnan (the thin books)

onae tutna (a/the white door) ;          onae tutnan (the white doors)

iette lum (light stone) ;                     iette luman (light stones)


! As seen in the above examples, the adjectives do not take plural forming suffix “-n” or “-an” even they qualify plural nouns.


  1. Comparative Adjectives


The Comparative Adjectives’ construction is as follows;


Subj.Prefix  +  aux.verb “to be”    Adjective + “comparative suffix”    Object

Sub.Prefix   +          -kka             adjective + The suffix “-ti”            Object



(Awa)  a-kka enua-ti onaa.  (I am better than you)

(Awa) akka enuati. (I am better)


! Regardless of the presence of object, the construction (Adjective + suffix “-ti” ) can be used to make comparison. For example in the above case, “Akka enuati” means “I am better” and “Akka enuati onaa” means “I am better than you”.


Na leetna wa-kka uqete-ti qua leetna. (This book is more expensive than that book.)

Orkun wakka uxseti Ozlem . (Orkun is older than Ozlem)

Quan Daran nukka esseti nan daran. (Those houses are bigger than these houses)



  1. Superlative Adjectives


The Superlative Adjectives construction is as follows;


Subj.Prefix + aux.verb “to be”    Adjective + “superlative suffix”

Sub.Prefix +         -kka              adjective + the suffix “-zi”



Na kurtna wakka enuazi.  (This team is the best)

(Maanu) nukkale enuazi chejan.  (They were the best players)







* is an unchangeable part of a sentence

* qualifies verbs or adjectives in a sentence

* gives information about how, where or when an action takes place

* can be a word, phrase or clause

* is placed after the verb except in some particular cases


! Some adverbs are derived from adjectives by simply adding the suffix “ - nesh “ to the last vowel of the adjective.

Adjective :   enua         (good)                         effu              (quick)

Adverb    :   enua-nesh  (well)                           effu-nesh       (quickly)


Examples to some common adverbs ;


Adverb                 Translation                       Example                           Translation

effunesh                  quickly                       Lee effunesh!                     Read quickly !

naka                        like                  Wanaruale naka sauja.              He/she stood up like soldier

soa tae                 too much                    Azade soa tae.                   I’ve eaten too much

futha                       aloud                         In po futha !                    Do not speak aloud !

soa                         very               Na shenne wakka soa essa.          This city is very big

chae di chae       one by one     Nufagude kumaesan chae di chae       They’ve passed the exams one by one

uxanesh                secretly               Wakunaole uxanesh jule.              He/she secretly returned yesterday

luga                      since                    Akuade luga sabbah.                I’ve worked since morning

samoje                 together          Tezata enua zatna samoje un dar.       We will eat good food together at home

neta                     always                    Nunuele reike neta                   They always wanted to travel

kutta                      early                  Wamue kutta un sabbah.              He wakes up early in the morning

untu                      under          Artun nuchega untu qua appa tura.         The children are playing under that long tree.

urua                      alone                          Naahota urua ?                  Will you go alone ?

vemonesh              daily                 Walee quan leetnan vemonesh.        He/she reads those books daily.



3-Possesive Pronouns and Possesive Adjectives


Subject Pronoun              Possesive Adjective            Possesive Pronoun               Object Pronoun

Awa (I)                                 Woa (my)                     Joa (mine)                          Oa (me)

Naaya (You)                          Wonaa (your)               Jonaa (yours)                      Onaa (you)

Wama (He/she/it)                 Wowa (his/her/its)       Jowa (his/hers/its)               Owa (him,her,it)

Awate (We)                           Wote (our)                   Jote (ours)                           Ote (us)

Kusaa (You(pl))                        Wosaa (your(pl))          Josaa (yours (pl))                  Osaa (you(pl))

Maanu (They)                         Wonua (their)              Jonua (theirs)                        Onua (them)


This table is available in The Appendix-6 as well.


Possesive Form


The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another. To form the possessive, add “ba” to the noun.


Possessive Form Example:


Artu ba Ela (The Child’s ball)   =   Ela i Artu (The ball of the child) 

Yenan ba Ron (The Girls’ room)  =  Ron i Yenan (The room of the girls)


Possessive Adjective Examples


Na Duatna in wakka joa, wakka jowa.      (This pencil is not mine, it is hers)

Quan kottan in nukka jonua.(Maanu) in nunaude onua.    (Those cars are not theirs. They have not bought them(cars)

Woa yuttan in nukkata chu, nuhode e wonua genan qenu chae orro gitna. (My friends will not be here, they have gone to their relatives for a short visit)

Wote saujan nukka alua. (Maanu) nulua wonua fuatnan soa.   (Our soldiers are strong. They have their weapons too)


4-Prepositions and Conjunctions


    Let’s read below conversation between two children carefully, where you will see the important role of the prepositions and conjunctions together with their contribution to the meaning of the sentences.


Please check The Prepositions and Conjunctions List in The Appendix-7.


Orkun : Ozlem, Choi naashauga untu na tura?

           (Ozlem, what are you doing under this tree?)   


                       Ozlem : Asaiga, use akka odaru.   

                                  ( I am resting, because I am tired)


Orkun : Choke naakka odaru? Choi naashaude?

           (Why are you tired? What have you done?)


                      Ozlem : Akuale shelu sabbah tal nuq luve. Chaen amuele un 8 (tau) un sabbah.

                                      Vukai  zake, aniele woa Qin furra i dar anda naqwe ahole e tuatku  

                                       nauke ussa moqten.

                                      (I worked from morning till night today. First I woke up at 8 o’clock       

                                       in the morning. After eating food, I helped my father in front of the

                                       house, and then I went to bazaar in order to buy some vegetables.)


Orkun : Ama wonaa Qin wamole oa qua naahole e tuatku itha wonaa wutta.

            (but your father told me that you went to bazaar with your brother)


                        Ozlem : Anta anuele hoke e tuatku itha woa wutta, (wama) wanuele baeke  

                                      un dar ewo i sake. Aruele tuatku initha woa wutta. In anauchale  

                                      nowaq un tespua exto komen anda magon.

                                     (Although I wanted to go to bazaar with my brother, he wanted to stay    

                                      at home instead of coming. I arrived in bazaar without him. I could not

                                      buy anything in the shop except oranges and mangos.)


Orkun : Qule naanaule sansa komen anda magon, in naagutele tae dina.

           (if you bought only oranges and mangos, you did not spend much money.)


                        Ozlem : In agutele achache dina, ontu ma soa tae, use moqten nukka soa uqete.

                                     (I did not spend little money, on the contrary very much, because the

                                      vegetables are very expensive.)


Orkun : Cae mukake?

             (Is that all?)


                        Ozlem : Ik’naeh. Vukai shake, aleele chae leetna anda naqwe akoale Kunaka.

                                     (No. Before sleeping, I read a book and then learnt Kunaka.)



Chapter Test - 2


Please chose the one which best suits the following sentences. (The questions 1-4)


1- Artun qua __chega un na mad, _____  joa.


a) nu-  ,  nukka      b) wa-  ,  wakka     c) te-  ,  tekka       d) a-   ,   akka       e) nu-  ,   wakka


2- Awa   ____   un leutna jule.


a) nukka        b) wakka         c) akka           d) akkale          e) naakka


3- Yin ka wasua__  meon sabbah.


a) le

b) ga

c) ta

d) de

e) __


4- Na Kiatna __kka ujoe__ qua kiatna.


a)   wa-  ,  -zi

b)   wa-  ,  _

c)   nu-  ,  -ti

d)   ka-  ,  -ti

e)   wa-  ,  -ti


Please chose the correct translations. (The questions 5-10)


5- Woa yutta teq wawede oa enuazi jaguatna.


a) My friend has just given him the best present.

b) My friend has just given me better present.

c) My friend has just given me a good present.

d) My friend has just given me the best present.

e) My friends have just given me the best present.


6- This long letter was written by him two years ago.


a) Qua appa sutna ka wavaale di owa tua lan zuda.

b) Na appa sutna wavaale di owa tua lan zuda.

c) Na appa sutna ka wavaale di oa tua lan zuda.

d) Na appa sutna ka nuvaale di owa tua lan zuda.

e) Na appa sutna ka wavaale di owa tua lan zuda.


7- Unfortunately that expensive products will not be inspected properly.


a) Inonuanesh qua uqete padan  in ka wakumaeta oduenesh.

b) Inonuanesh qua uqete padan  in ka nukumaeta oduenesh.

c) Inonuanesh qua uqete padan  in nukumaeta oduenesh.

d) Inonuanesh qua uqete padan ka nukumaeta oduenesh.

e) Inonuanesh qua uqete pada  in ka wakumaeta oduenesh.


8- There were many shops on this street 3 years ago.


a) Se wakkale ottua tespua ontu na pinte bei lan zuda.

b) Se nukkale ottua tespuan ontu na pinte tua lan zuda.

c) Se nukkale ottua tespuan ontu na pinte bei lan zuda.

d) Se nukka ottua tespuan ontu na pinte bei lan zuda.

e) Se nukkale achache tespuan ontu na pinte bei lan zuda.


9- Chola ajulea TV, watule ron.


a) When I was watching TV, they entered into the room.

b) When I was watching TV, he was having lunch.

c) When I was watching TV, he entered into the room.

d) When I was watching TV, he entered into the bedroom

e) When he was watching TV, I entered into the room.


10- Wanaude chae uqeteti jaguatna anaude.


a) He has bought a more expensive gift than I have bought.

b) He has bought a more expensive gift than they have bought.

c) He buys a more expensive gift than I do.

d) He has bought a cheaper gift than I have bought.

e) You have bought a more expensive gift than I have bought.

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