10- Qu-Tense (If Tense)

Conditional Sentence (If)

 

   Conditional sentences are the ‘If sentences’ and they indicate that something happens provided that a previously stated requirement is fulfilled.

   A conditional sentence is composed of two parts. In the first part, the condition is given, using the suffix “-qu” and in the second part the result of the fulfilled condition is given.

 

    In the construction of the condition, the suffix “-qu” is used in the formulation placed at the end of the verb root and the conditional part of the sentence is followed by the result of that action. See the below example sentences to understand it better.

 

     The structure of the conditional part is as follows:

 

A-Positive Conditional Sentence Structure

 

Subject Prefix + Verb root + The Suffix “-qu”

                          

 

!  In the above formulation the suffix “-qu” is the key word for positive conditional sentence

 

Ex: Wanauqu moqte. (If he buys vegetable)

 

Analysing the structure:

Wanauqu moqte ;          wa- : subject prefix for 3.Sg Person (he/she)

                                 -nau- : the verb root “to buy”

                                    -qu: key word for conditional sentence (if)

                               moqte : object (vegetable)

 

! To intensify the meaning the word “qule” : “ if ” can be put at the beginning of the sentence, but it is optional.

Ex: (Qule) naazanuqu zatna   : (If you cook food)

 

! The conditional sentence is followed by a result sentence (resulting action)

Ex: Wanauqu moqte, azanuta. (If he/she buys vegetable, I’ll cook)

       (Qule) naazanuqu, asata. (If you cook, I’ll come)

 

Subject Prefix + Verb Root + The IF suffix “-qu”              Object                            Translation

       A-                -lee-                 -qu                       leetna                        If I read the book

       Naa-           -ye-                  -qu                       dina                           If you earn money

       Wa-            -ca-                  -qu                       tura                            If he/she climbs the tree

       Te-              -za-                  -qu                       ujete                           If we eat fruits

       Saa-           -che-                 -qu                       katela                         If you(pl) play football

       Nu-            -li-                    -qu                       mile                            If they drink milk

B-Negative Conditional Sentence Structure

In  Subject Prefix + Verb root + the suffix “-qu”

! In the above formulation the negative status indicator “in” is the key word for negative conditional sentence

Ex: In teleequ na leetna : (If we do not read this book)

Analysis:                         In : key word for negative conditional sentence (not)

                                    te- : subject prefix for 1.Pl Person (awate)

                                 -lee- : the verb root “to read”

                                   -qu: key word for conditional sentence (if)

                                  na : this (demonstrative pronoun)                                     

                             leetna : object (book)

! The conditional sentence structure can have further grammatical elements such as personal objects or noun objects to become more functional.

Ex: Naaguequ oa, asata. (If you invite me, I’ll come)

Word by word Analysis:

Naa-    -gue-    -qu    oa,     a-       -sa-        -ta

(You)   (invite)    (if)   (me),    (I)     (come)     (will)

Analysis:                                Naa- : subject prefix for 2.Sg Person (naaya)

                                             -gue- : the verb root “to invite”

                                                -qu : key word for conditional sentence (if)

                                                oa : personal object for 1.Sg Person (me)

                                                 a- : subject prefix for 1.Sg Person (awa)

                                               -sa- : the verb root “to come”

                                                -ta : the tense indicator for future tense

                                          

Ex :    In naakoqu komen, Artun nuzata onua.

      (If you do not hide the oranges,  children will eat them)

Analysing the sentence:              In :  the negative status indicator (not)         

                                         Naa- : subject prefix for 2.Sg Person (naaya)

                                            -ko- : the verb root “to hide”

                                            -qu : key word for conditional sentence (if)

                                       komen : oranges (the object)

                                         Artun : children

                                            nu- : subject prefix for 3.Pl Person(maanu)

                                           -za- : the verb root “to eat”

                                             -ta : the tense indicator for future tense

                                         onua : the 3.person plural object pronoun (them)

Neg.Status Indicator     Subject Prefix + Verb Root + The “If” suffix “-qu”       Object                    Translation

           In                            a-              -lee-                 -qu                   leetna             If I do not read the book

           In                            naa-           -ye-                 -qu                   dina                If you do not earn money

           In                            wa-            -ca-                -qu                    tura                 If he/she does not climb the tree

           In                            te-              -za-                -qu                    ujete                If we do not eat fruits

           In                            saa-           -che-               -qu                    katela              If you(pl) do not play football

           In                            nu-             -li-                  -qu                    mile                If they do not drink milk

Chapter Test - 10

Please chose the correct translation. (Questions 1-10)

 

1- If they do not come, we can not eat together.

 

a) (Qule) nusaqu, teza samoje.                          d) (Qule) in nusaqu, in tezacha samoje.

b) (Qule) nusaqu, in tezacha samoje.                 e) (Qule) in tesaqu, in tezacha samoje.

c) (Qule) in nusaqu, tezacha samoje.

 

2- If the students do not learn well, they can not pass the exam without difficulty.

 

a) Leujan in nukoaqu enuanesh, in nufagucha kumaetna itha ujoetna.

b) Leujan in nukoaqu enuanesh, in nufagucha kumaetna initha ujoetna.

c) Leujan in nukoaqu enuanesh, nufagucha kumaetna initha ujoetna.

d) Leuja in wakoaqu enuanesh, in wafagucha kumaetna initha ujoetna.

e) Leujan nukoaqu enuanesh, in wafagucha kumaetna initha ujoetna.

3- In waruqu jowa repa, wakkata ran.

a) If he/she gets his/her medicine, he/she will be sick.

b) If he/she does not get his/her medicine, he/she can be sick.

c) If he/she does not get his/her medicine, he/she will be happy.

d) If they do not get their medicine, they will be sick.

e) If he/she does not get his/her medicine, he/she will be sick.

 

4- If you do not learn Kunaka, you can not speak Kunaka.

 

a) In naakoaqu Kunaka, in naapocha Kunaka.

b) Naakoaqu Kunaka, in naapocha Kunaka.

c) In nukoaqu Kunaka, in naapocha Kunaka.

d) In naakoaqu Kunaka, naapocha Kunaka.

e) In naakoaqu Kunaka, in nupocha Kunaka.

 

5- If you see him, tell him that I will come.

 

a) Naasoqu owa, mo owa qua asale.

b) Naasoqu owa, in mo owa qua asata.

c) Tesoqu owa, mo owa qua asata.

d) Naasoqu owa, mo owa qua asata.

e) Naasoqu oa, mo owa qua asata.

 

6- If we hide in the bush, they can not see us.

 

a) Tekoqu un busha, nusocha ote.                d) Naakoqu un busha, in nusocha ote.

b) Akoqu un busha, in nusocha ote.              e) Tekoqu un busha, in nusocha ote.

c) Tekoqu un busha, in nusoza ote.

 

7- Naamuequ kutta, naahocha e tuatku, naanaune ujeten.

 

a) If he wakes up early, he goes to the market so that he buys fruits.

b) If you woke up early, you would go to the market and would buy fruits.

c) If you wake up early, you can go to the market so that you buy fruits.

d) If we wake up early, go to the market so that you buy fruits.

e) If you wake up late, go to the market so that you could buy fruits.

 

8- If you open the door, the dog will escape.

 

a) Naasuaqu tutna, doga wagauta.

b) Asuaqu tutna, doga wagauta.

c) Naasuaqu tutna, doga in wagauta.

d) Naasuaqu tutna, doga wagaule.

e) Naaleequ tutna, doga wagauta.