Kunaka is an artificial language created by the language expert Mr.Orkun Ates to be used in his Science Fiction book titled as “The Darkside of the Moon, Volume 1: The Rise of The Kun People Against Sonach Empire” as the language of an alien race, The Kun People. Then he has further developed Kunaka language to make it a fully functioning language with its perfectly constructed grammer features. The next target is to form a Kunaka speaking community from all over the world.
This book aims to give the readers a basic understanding of Kunaka for daily use. Thus instead of bothering the readers with a detailed and complicated grammar, a simplified but very effective grammar learning method has been introduced which makes the understanding of the grammar as easy and enjoyable as possible.
The Kunaka language has two alphabets;
Latin Alphabet (plus 2 digraphs)
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z
b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
a, e, i, o, u
Alphabet has 26 letters (21 consonants and 5 vowels) and 2 digraphs (ch and sh).
The Alphabet has 28 special characters / letters. Each letter in Kun alphabet has its corresponding letter in Latin alphabet. Please check Kun alphabet in The Appendix-1.
Our Kunaka speaking community can chose to read&write any of these two alphabets, but Latin alphabet will be used throughout this book to make the learning process faster.
The pronunciations of Kunaka letters are the same as the pronunciations of Turkish letters.
Please study the following letter pronunciations carefully;
A a/a/ 'a' as in father
B b/b/ 'b' as in book
C c/dʒ/ 'j' as in joke
D d/d/ 'd' as in day
E e/e/, /ɛ/ 'e' as in red or 'a' as in cat
F f/f/ 'f' as in far
G g/ɡ/, /ɟ/ 'g' as in game
H h/h/ 'h' as in hot
I i/i/ 'i' as in machine
J j/ʒ/ 's' as in pleasure
K k/k/, /c/ 'k' as in kilo
L l/l/, /ɫ/ 'l' as in life
M m/m/ 'm' as in master
N n/n/ 'n' as in nice
O o/o/ 'o' as in more
P p/p/ 'p' as in spin
Q q/kju/ ‘q’ as in queen
R r/ɾ/ 'r' as in car
S s/s/ 's' as in smile
T t/t/ 't' as in stop
U u/u/ 'u' as in ultimate
V v/v/ 'v' as in victory
W w/’dɅbəlju:/ ‘w’ as in west
X x/ɛks/ ‘x’ as in x-mas
Y y/j/ 'y' as in you
Z z/z/ 'z' as in zigzag
Ch/tʃ/ 'ch' as in chimpanzee
Sh/ʃ/ 'sh' as in shine
! When two or more vowels follow each other, they must be pronounced separately, each vowel keeping its own sound and do not form a single sound.
Awate tevuga leetnan. (We are selling books)
Maanu nusale shelu wekele. (They came from the village)
Awate telede owa meuke. (We have allowed him to count)
! The emphasis is given to the middle syllable in the 3-syllable-constructions.
! The emphasis is given to the first syllable in the 2-syllable-constructions.
! Each syllable must be pronounced separately with a short pause between them.
! Some words may have apostrophe sign ( ‘ ) which means there is a long pause after it.
Ex: Ik’naeh : No
Ka’ah : Model verb “may”
C-Articles in Kunaka
There are no articles in Kunaka. That means the noun “tutna” can be either “a door” or “the door”. The way to make a noun definitive, demonstratives are used such as “this”, “these”, “that” and “those”.
Ex: Tu-ke : to enter (infinitive form)
Tu : enter (verb root)
Tu-tna : a door or the door, (an entrance or the entrance )
Tutna-n : doors or the doors
Na : This
Qua : That
Na Tutna : this door
Qua Tutna : that door
Nan Tutnan : these doors
Quan Tutnan : those doors
D- Verb related Nouns
As seen in the previous example, the word Tu-tna (entrance, door) is derived from the verb root “tu” (enter) by simply adding the suffix “-tna”. Moreover the subject performing the action is also derived from the verb root by adding the suffix “-ja”
i.e. verb root “po” (speak), “po-ja” means “speaker”
! These are the unique features of Kunaka Language. Knowing this, you can easily guess the link between some verbs and the nouns.
Ex: Po-ke : to speak Po-tna : speech Po-ja : speaker
Lee-ke : to read Lee-tna : book Lee-ja : reader
E-Plurals in Kunaka
Forming the plurals of the nouns is quite easy, as you simply add the suffix “-n” at the end of the singular form of the noun if the noun ends with a vowel. If the noun does not end with a vowel, but ends with a consonant then the suffix “-an” should be inserted at the end of the noun.
Ex: Tutna : entrance, door Dar : house
Tutna-n : entrances, doors Dar-an : houses
Demonstratives show where an object, event, or person is in relation to the speaker. They can refer to a physical or a psychological closeness or distance. When talking about events, the near demonstratives are often used to refer to the present while the far demonstratives often refer to the past.
! Demonstratives can be placed before the noun or the adjective that modifies the noun in Kunaka.
Ex: Chu : here Shu : there
Na Tutna : this Door Na Potna : this Speech
Nan Tutnan : these Doors Nan Potnan : these Speeches
Qua Tutna : that Door Qua Potna : that Speech
Quan Tutnan : those Doors Quan Potnan : those Speeches
As you can see in the above examples, the same method is applied when forming the plural form of “this” and “that”. The same way as forming the plural form of the nouns, the plural form of determinative nouns are simply made by adding the suffix “-n” at the end.
Please check The Nouns List in The Appendix-2.
Chapter Test - 1
Please chose the correct translations. (Questions 1-2)
1- those doors / this speech / there / books / reader
a) qua tutna / na potna / shu / leetnan / leeja
b) quan tutnan / na potna / shu / leetnan / leeja
c) quan tutnan / nan potnan / shu / leetnan / leeja
d) quan tutnan / na potna / chu / leetnan / leeja
e) quan tutnan / na potna / shu / leetna / leeja
2- nan leetnan / qua poja / chu
a) those books / that speaker / here
b) these books / this speaker / here
c) these books / that speaker / there
d) these books / that speaker / here
e) these books / those speakers / here