11- Relative Pronouns “That” = “Qua”
In Kunaka as in English, the relative pronouns are widely used to express the relative in the sentence. Relative clauses are non-essential parts of a sentence. They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. There are three ways to build a relative pronoun in Kunaka, but the most convenient one is the independent relative pronoun “Qua” form, because the other relative pronouns are either without a tense marker which makes the understanding of the tense of the sentence impossible or can only be used in limited number of tenses. On the other hand the independent relative pronoun “Qua” can be used with all the verbs and tenses without a problem, which favors its use in modern Kunaka. For this reason, only “Qua” form will be explained in this chapter.
! The relative pronoun “Qua“ in Kunaka refers to “who”, “which”, “where”, “what”, “that” or “whose” in Kunaka according to the situation.
! The relative ” Qua “ is placed between the noun and the verb that requires a relative.
Raat qua wakuale The person that worked
(Raat choga wakuale) (The person who worked)
Raatan qua nusode oa The people that have seen me
(Raatan choga nusode oa) (The people who have seen me)
Uqete leetna qua anauta meon The expensive book that I will buy tomorrow
(Uqete leetna chopai anauta meon) (The expensive book which I will buy tomorrow)
Leetnan qua ka nuvule jule The books that were sold yesterday
(Leetnan chopai ka nuvule jule) (The books which were sold yesterday)
Tutna qua ka wafea The door that is broken
(Tutna chopai ka wafea) (The door which is broken)
Kafea tutna * (Broken door) *
Essa Tutnan i Dar qua ka numaeta meon The big doors of the house that will be cleaned tomorrow
(Essa Tutnan i Dar chopai ka numaeta meon) (The big doors of the house which will be cleaned tomorrow)
Axta Kome qua anaude un tespua The tasteful orange that I have bought in the shop
(Axta Kome chopai anaude un tespua) (The tasteful orange which I have bought in the shop)
Komen qua tezata samoje un Dar The oranges that we will eat together at home
(Komen chopai tezata samoje un Dar) (The oranges which we will eat together at home)
Ittau Onas qua wanide The cheap drum that he/she has brought
(Ittau Onas chopai wanide) (The cheap drum which he/she has brought)
Ittau Onasan qua ka nupele jule The cheap drums that were stolen yesterday
(Ittau Onasan chopai ka nupele jule) (The cheap drums which were stolen yesterday)
Appa Nuut qua nuroade The long wall that they have built
(Appa Nuut chopai nuroade) (The long wall which they have built)
Orro Nuutan qua ka nusoeta The short walls that will be painted
(Orro Nuutan chopai ka nusoeta) (The short walls which will be painted)
Chae Sad qua in se nukka tespuan A place where there are no shops
(Chae Sad chonar in se nukka tespuan) (A place where there are no shops)
Koake Kunaka qua awo Learning Kunaka that I like
(Koake Kunaka chopai awo) (Learning Kunaka which I like)
Arta qua wakka woa yutta The man that is my friend
(Arta choga wakka woa yutta) (The man who is my friend)
Raat qua wakua chu The person that works here
(Raat choga wakua chu) (The person who works here)
* If we analyse the example marked with an asterisk;
“Broken door” is composed of two parts
1- The adjective part. In this case the adjective part is the passive form of the verb “to break” “fea-ke” made by passive forming particle “ka”
2- Noun part which is defined by the adjective. In this case the noun is the “door”= “Tutna”
The door which is broken (Tutna qua ka wafea)
The door which was broken (Tutna qua ka wafeale)
The door which will be broken (Tutna qua ka wafeata)
! As seen in the above 3 examples, the relative pronoun is used for 3 different tense cases.
But when we want to say “broken door” which defines the status of the door, we use adjective + noun construction. Then we simply say
“ka fea Tutna”
Because in this construction we do not have any tense and any subject so we do not need to use any tense indicator or any subject prefix.
Hence we simply say “ka fea” = “broken” as adjective
We write them adjoining, without leaving a space so the final form is;
“kafea” = “broken”
Kafea Tutna = Broken Door
Chapter Test - 11
Please chose the correct translation. (Questions 1-10)
1- The person you saw yesterday in the market works in a big shop.
a) Raatan qua naasole jule un tuatku, nukua un chae essa tespua.
b) Raat qua asole jule un tuatku, wakua un chae essa tespua.
c) Raat qua naasole jule un tuatku, wakua un chae essa tespua.
d) Raat qua naasole chae zuda un tuatku, wakua un chae essa tespua.
e) Raat qua naaso un tuatku, wakua un chae essa tespua.
2- We have found the book you looked for yesterday.
a) Teruade leetna qua naalau.
b) Teruade leetna qua walaule jule.
c) Teruale leetna qua naalaule jule.
d) Teruade leetna qua naalaule jule.
e) Nuruade leetna qua naalaule jule.
3- The children who played football have failed the exam.
a) Artun qua nuchele katela nurusega kumaetna.
b) Artun qua nuzale katela nurusede kumaetna.
c) Artun qua nuche katela nuruseta kumaetna.
d) Artu qua wachele katela warusede kumaetna.
e) Artun qua nuchele katela nurusede kumaetna.
4- The things you told me were true.
a) Waqan qua naamole oa nukkale in maah.
b) Waqan qua naamole owa nukkale maah.
c) Waqan qua amole onaa nukkale maah.
d) Waq qua naamole oa wakkale maah.
e) Waqan qua naamole oa nukkale maah.
5- The fruits they have bought will go bad.
a) Ujeten qua nunaude nugoata.
b) Ujete qua wanaude wagoata.
c) Ujeten qua nunaude nugoade.
d) Ujeten qua nunau nugoa.
e) Ujete qua wanaule nugoata.
6- The car we saw last week has been sold.
a) Kottan qua tesole sa’ah oma ka nuvude.
b) Kotta qua tesole sa’ah oma ka wavude.
c) Kotta qua asole sa’ah oma ka wavude.
d) Kotta qua teso sa’ah oma ka wavuta.
e) Kotta qua tesole tua oman zuda ka wavude.
7- The house we have rent is new.
a) Dar qua terede wakka aunze.
b) Dar qua terede wakkale aunze.
c) Dar qua terede wakka in aunze.
d) Daran qua terede nukka aunze.
e) Dar qua tereta wakka aunze.
8- The man you will meet tomorrow is a teacher.
a) Arta naahuta meon wakka chae leuja.
b) Arta naahule meon wakkale chae niaja.
c) Arta naahu meon wakka chae niaja.
d) Artan naahuta meon nukka chae niaja.
e) Arta naahuta meon wakka chae niaja.
9- I did not understand the words you told me.
a) Ayole maltan qua naamole oa.
b) In ayole maltan qua naamole oa.
c) In ayo maltan qua naamole oa.
d) In ayole maltan qua naamole owa.
e) In ayole malt qua naamole oa.
10- Have you received the letter I sent you?
a) Cae, naashede sutna qua asule onaa?
b) Cae, naashe sutna qua asu onaa?
c) Cae, naashede sutna qua asule oaji?
d) Cae, naasheta sutna qua asuta onaa?
e) Chola naashede sutna qua asule onaa?